Macular Degeneration – Healthcare Marijuana Analysis Overview


The following facts is presented for educational purposes only. Healthcare Marijuana Inc. delivers this facts to deliver an understanding of the prospective applications of cannabidiol. Hyperlinks to third celebration internet websites do not constitute an endorsement of these organizations by Healthcare Marijuana Inc. and none need to be inferred.

Affecting far more than 10 million Americans, macular degeneration is an incurable eye illness triggered by the deterioration of the retina. Research have identified that cannabis has neuroprotective properties, suggesting it could be valuable for preserving retinal wellness.

Overview of Macular Degeneration

The top lead to of vision loss, macular degeneration is triggered by the deterioration of the central portion of the retina. That central portion, referred to as the macula, is accountable for recording the photos observed and sending them by way of the optic nerve from the eye to the brain for interpretation. Its deterioration, which is gradual, leads to photos not getting received appropriately.

Macular degeneration, also referred to as age-associated macular degeneration (AMD), happens in 3 stages. Early AMD is when tiny yellow deposits, referred to as drusen, create beneath the retina. In the course of this early stage, there is no vision loss and consequently the capacity to catch AMD early on only takes place throughout routine eye exams. At intermediate AMD, the drusen are bigger and there may well be some vision loss but usually no noticeable symptoms. It is not till late AMD that vision loss absolutely becomes noticeable.

Why macular degeneration develops is not conclusively recognized, while scientists think its causes involve each heredity and atmosphere. The most significant threat issue for the illness is age, as it is most most likely to take place in these 55 years and older. Smoking also doubles the threat of macular degeneration.

Macular degeneration is viewed as an incurable eye illness. To slow the progression of the illness, physicians usually propose way of life alterations like workout, avoiding smoking, dieting, and defending the eyes from ultraviolet light.

Findings: Effects of Cannabis on Macular Degeneration

The effects of cannabis on macular degeneration have but to be adequately research, but analysis indicates that cannabinoids like cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects that may well be valuable for enhancing cell survival in the eyes and encouraging eye wellnessfive. Cannabinoids have demonstrated as possessing neuroprotective properties that may well inhibit cell death and vision loss in the case of degenerative eye issues like retinitis pigmentosa1,six.

An animal study identified each CBD and THC powerful for limiting the formation of peroxynitrade, a potent oxidant accountable for retinal neuron deathtwo. In one more study CBD remedies drastically lowered oxidative strain, decreased the levels of levels of tumor necrosis issue-α, and prevented retinal cell death in the diabetic retinathree.

In what additional suggests that cannabinoids may well be capable to play a therapeutic part in individuals with degenerative eye ailments, research have identified proof that cannabinoids enhance the light sensitivity of cells in the retina, efficiently enhancing low-light vision7,eight.

States That Have Authorized Healthcare Marijuana for Macular Degeneration

No states have authorized healthcare marijuana particularly for the therapy of macular degeneration.

On the other hand, in Washington D.C., any situation can be authorized for healthcare marijuana as extended as a DC-licensed doctor recommends the therapy. In addition, many states will look at enabling healthcare marijuana to be made use of for the therapy of macular degeneration with the recommendation from a doctor. These states involve: California (any debilitating illness exactly where the healthcare use of marijuana has been advised by a doctor), Connecticut (other healthcare circumstances may well be authorized by the Division of Customer Protection), Massachusetts (other circumstances as determined in writing by a qualifying patient’s doctor), Nevada (other circumstances topic to approval), Oregon (other circumstances topic to approval), Rhode Island (other circumstances topic to approval), and Washington (any “terminal or debilitating condition”).

Current Research on Cannabis’ Impact on Macular Degeneration

  • THC reduces toxicity in the eye, indicating it possesses neuroprotective effects that inhibit cell death.
    Protective effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced AF5 cell death.
  • THC and CBD lessen the attenuation of peroxynitrate, thereby defending eye neuron wellness.
    Neuroprotective Impact of(−)Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in N-Methyl-d-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Neurotoxicity : Involvement of Peroxynitrite.


  1. Chen, J., Lee, C.-T., Errico, S., Deng, X., Cadet, J. L., &amp Freed, W. J. (2005). Protective effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced AF5 cell death. Brain Analysis. Molecular Brain Analysis, 134(two), 215–225. Retrieved from
  2. El-Remessy, A.B., Khalil, I.E., Matragoon, S., Abou-Mohamed, G., Tsai, N.-J., Roon, P., Caldwell, R.B., Caldwell, R.W., Green, K., and Liou, G.I. (2003). Neuroprotective Impact of(−)Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in N-Methyl-d-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Neurotoxicity : Involvement of Peroxynitrite. The American Journal of Pathology, 163(five), 1997–2008. Retrieved from
  3. El-Remessy, A.B., Al-Shabrawey, M., Khalifa, Y., Tsai, N.-T., Caldwell, R.B., and Liou, G.I. (2006, January). Neuroprotective and Blood-Retinal Barrier-Preserving Effects of Cannabidiol in Experimental Diabetes. Neurobiology, 168(1), 235-44. Retrieved from
  4. Details About Age-Associated Macular Degeneration. (2015, September). National Eye Institute. Retrieved from
  5. Hampson, A. J., Grimaldi, M., Axelrod, J., &amp Wink, D. (1998). Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(14), 8268–8273. Retrieved from
  6. Lax, P., Esquiva, G., Altavilla, C., and Cuenca, N. (2014, March). Neuroprotective effects of the cannabinoid agonist HU210 on retinal degeneration. Experimental Eye Analysis, 120, 175-185. Retrieved from Macular Degeneration. (2017, August 24). S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from
  7. Miraucourt, L.S., Tsui, J., Gobert, D., Desjardins, J.-F., Schohl, A., Sild, M., Spratt, P., Castonguay, A., De Konick, Y., Marsh-Armstrong, N., Wiseman, P.W., and Ruthazer, E. S. (2016). Endocannabinoid signaling enhances visual responses by means of modulation of intracellular chloride levels in retinal ganglion cells. eLife, five, e15932. Retrieved from
  8. Russo, E.B., Merzouki, A., Molera Mesa, J., Frey, K.A., and Bach, P.J. (2004, July). Cannabis improves evening vision: a case study of dark adaptometry and scotopic sensitivity in kif smokers of the Rif mountains of northern Morocco. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93(1), 99-104. Retrieved from
  9. What is Macular Degeneration? (n.d.). American Macular Degeneration Foundation. Retrieved from


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